Politics, as we understand it today, is generally thought to have begun in ancient Greece. They were the first society to formulate a democratic political system, and while they did have some differences to today, one can see the foundations which influenced our practices. One distinct difference was the idea of participatory democracy. For the ancient Greeks, it was incredibly important that everybody in society was a part of the decision-making process. Therefore, ordinary people had to serve a specified period of time in a government institution.
Many argue that this would be beneficial for politics today, in reality, with the huge explosion population growth it would not be feasible. The United Kingdom is considered to be the oldest parliament in the world. Many countries around the world have replicated the British Parliament your system and it is generally understood to be the fairest and most effective form of national governance.
One distinct change which has influence politics over the centuries is a dissolution of the monarchies in many countries around the world. Francis often cited as the most common example of a revolution which saw the dissolution of the monarchy. However this has happened in many countries including Russia, Iran, and China, all have which to have to remove the influence of kings and queens and designated themselves a republic.
Some countries, such as the United Kingdom and Thailand, still have a monarchy though they are generally considered to be largely representative instead of having a strong political hold over the workings of the country.
Another interesting facet of politics is the empire. Over the centuries, many countries have been colonized by states, and under the rule of a government located thousands of miles away. Countries with large empires that history include the United Kingdom, France, Spain and the Netherlands. The last formal colony to be handed back was Hong Kong which was given to the Chinese by the British in 1997. However many countries remain affiliated to their Former colonizers. The Dutch Antilles, located off the coast of the Caribbean, still speak Dutch today and are considered a de facto part of the Netherlands. Empire is largely considered to have been detrimental to the world with some arguing that the development of nations was hindered by the interference of foreign states.